Abstracts of Volume XXVIII 2006

Issue No 1, Spring 2006

Welding theory with tourism: past and present of industrial archaeology in Finland

Industrial archaeology, like any other branch of archaeology, forms a place where past and present meet. That how and to what ends the meeting place have been set up, defines the reciprocal binding between the two. In Finnish industrial archaeology, efforts to construct this stage have been very patchy, occasional and machine-centred. The first proper archaeological excavation at an industrial site took place in the 1980s, and the first Finnish article discussing the term was published as late as 1977. The situation has changed radically during the late 1990s and early 2000s, fieldwork has become more common and more studies are being published. One crucial factor in this development has been the growth of cultural tourism which has made technical and museological demands on industrial heritage. Industrial tourism as a whole is a new challenge to heritage management and industrial archaeology, because Finland has traditionally profiled itself as a country of nature tourism. However, the implications of the tourist industry for industrial archaeology and heritage have neither been fully articulated nor analysed. The following article attempts firstly to present an overview of Finnish industrial archaeology and secondly to bring together three aspects of the current state of research: archaeological practice, tourism and theoretical reflection.

Industrial Archaeology or the Archaeology of the Industrial Period? Models, Methodology and the Future of Industrial Archaeology
The 2005 Rolt Memorial Lecture

This paper outlines in brief the development of Industrial Archaeology in Britain as a mainstream branch of archaeology over the last 50 years, before then reviewing some of the recent methodological developments in IA. The author argues that whilst Industrial Archaeology embraces both the archaeology of technology and the archaeology of industrialisation, it is the latter strand that is the defining feature of much modern IA work. A wide range of techniques emphasising both landscape and social change, linked to technological development, have been developed by those studying the phenomenon of British Industrialisation since 1991. It is argued that the radical changes to the production, consumption, and urban nature of this newly industrialised society is best studied archaeologically through the medium of this new Industrial Archaeology. Furthermore, this social and landscape approach, coupled with the study of technological change, could be used to compare the different rates and geographical location of industrialisation around the globe from a distinctive archaeological perspective.

The History of Granton Gas Works

Much of the industrial archaeology in Britain relating to the coal gas industry is slowly disappearing because of the desirability of the sites in which they are placed for redevelopment. A recent survey of the surviving buildings at Granton Gas Works on the Firth of Forth in Edinburgh by AOC Archaeology Group aims to supplement the current record of this disappearing heritage.

The development of fire-proof construction in Brussels between 1840-70

Fire-proof mill construction had been developed in England at the end of the 18th century. In Brussels, the first large fireproof building was constructed in 1844-7. All at once, the backlog of 50 years was eliminated. Moreover, for Brussels, the experimental period just started. Not bound by traditions, new techniques and materials were soon adopted. The evolution of the construction history of fireproof building in Brussels is discussed by going more deeply into the construction of six buildings, erected between 1844 and 1870.

Issue No 2, Autumn 2006

The Brendon Hills Industrial Survey 1993-2005

This paper records the genesis and progress of the Brendon Hills Industrial Survey and describes and illustrates excavations of some of the 19th century mine sites and the incline winding house, of which a conjectural ‘restored’ drawing is shown. It also gives an account of iron mining on the Brendon Hills in west Somerset and of the West Somerset Mineral Railway constructed to convey iron ore to the coast for shipment to Wales.

Industrial Archaeology in the North York Moors National Park: Recent Work and Research

This paper will attempt to summarise recently completed and current work, research and publication on industrial archaeology by a range of organisations and individuals within the North York Moors National Park. Topics covered include the alum, iron, coal, lime and jet industries, together with milling, relevant publication and a note on the recent development of an archaeological Research and Management Framework for the National Park.

Recording Dartmoor’s Extractive Industries
(English Heritage Archaeological Investigation Team, Exeter)

A long-term commitment by the English Heritage (EH) Archaeological Survey and Investigation (AS&I) team to record the historic landscape of Dartmoor National Park (DNP) is starting to pay dividends. By responding to the needs of partner organisations over a number of years, the team has made good progress in building up a substantive body of survey data on many aspects of Dartmoor’s past, particularly on the high moors. The understanding which results from this work has obvious immediate benefits for those who have to manage and make decisions about this important protected landscape, but a further benefit is that analysis of several formerly neglected themes is now becoming possible, based on archaeological survey. This is particularly so for the industrial landscape which was subject to hardly any form of analytical investigation prior to the early 1990s and was very much a poor relation compared to prehistoric and medieval elements. Some of Dartmoor’s major mining landscapes have now been surveyed at large scale, while a programme of more general mapping is beginning to reveal the extent of, for example, the early tin industry on the upland. Quarrying, mining, china-clay working and peat cutting are also now firmly established components of the National Monument Record where previously they were absent.

Recording mining landscapes in the Yorkshire Dales: The contribution of the Northern Mine Research Society

Since its formation in the early 1960s the Northern Mine Research Society has been recording both surface and underground sites in the Yorkshire Dales and has maintained a list of sites, initially as a card index, now in the form of a database which has made a significant contribution to both the North Yorkshire and Yorkshire Dales National Park SMR records. Since the 1970s members of the society have developed methodologies for recording and understanding mining landscapes. In recent years this has involved using GPS to record significant areas of Grassington Moor, Greenhow Hill, and Arkengarthdale. This is now being combined with detailed three dimensional underground surveys and historic mapping in a GIS environment to provide an integrated landscape record.
This paper will outline the work done by the society and how it compares and relates to work carried out by the National Park. It will also detail the current methodology and approach to recording surface and underground sites.

Aspects of the management of the remains of limestone industries in the Yorkshire Dales Yorkshire Dales. Limestone industries

Survey, protection, consolidation and interpretation of aspects of limestone industries in the Yorkshire Dales National Park is discussed, particularly initial results of the Yorkshire Dales Lime Kiln Survey including works to protect the two Hoffmann kilns in the National Park. Attention is drawn to recent investigations of clamp or sow kilns, two of which have been dated to the late 17th century.