IA Review – Abstract of Volume 37 No 1 May 2015

Obituary – Sonia Rolt OBE FSA 1919 – 2014
Sir Neil Cossons

Rosia Montana, Romania: Industrial Heritage in Situ, between Preservation, Controversy and Cultural Recognition

The first aim of this article is to present a comprehensive analysis of industrial heritage ‘in situ’, highlighting the cultural and technological importance of the Rosia Montana archaeological site. This is an ancient gold-mining area, exploited \pard plain since the Iron Age, and the site is one of the most representative of Romania in terms of cultural patrimony, with elements of mining heritage, vernacular architecture, archaeological remains from Roman period. The documentation hass20 been drafted for the inclusion of the Rosia Montana archaeological mining site on the UNESCO World Heritage monuments tentative list; this is currently being assessed by the Romanian Ministry of Culture. The second aim of the article is to anticipate the impact of the resumption of extractive activity by a Canadian company. This situation is one of the most controversial topics in Romanian society, as a result of the response n to the negative impact of mining, including the pollution of surface waters with cyanide and the flooding of an entire village, along with its valuable cultural heritage.
KEYWORDS: industrial archaeology, conservation in situ, industrial tourism, Rosia Montana, Romania, metal mining, gold mining

Underground Electric Lighting in the 1880s: Clayton Mine, Ecton, Staffordshire

In 2008 evidence was first identified for 1880s use of electrical lighting deep underground in Clayton Mine at Ecton; further data was gathered in 2014 when archaeological excavations were undertaken. This lighting illuminated the main chamber,\pard plain where there was a steam engine for winding and pumping, and also an adjacent side chamber where there was a further engine used to produce compressed air. Both engines are documented as installed in 1883/4. In a second side chamber a stone bed remains for another small steam engine, which we now know powered a DC dynamo set on a timber floor that kept the equipment free from the puddles of water that collected on the bedrock below. All three chambers were whitewashed to make lighting more effective. Archaeological finds include a commutator brush, a mica separator from the commutator, copper wiring and pieces of drive belt. Clayton Mine was abandoned in 1889/90; hence this is a demonstrable important example with archaeological evidence for the early use of electricity.
KEYWORDS: Clayton Mine, DC dynamo, electricity, Ecton, lighting, mining

Golden Era of Lager Breweries in the Southern Austro-Hungarian Empire

This paper reviews the context and continuity of beer production in the southern Austro-Hungarian Empire during the period of the dual monarchy or Dualism (1867-19 14). Brewing, which in this region dates from the mid-18th century, was the first activity with characteristics of industrial production. The development of breweries is considered through four spatial levels: industrial building/complex; ain settlement (Pancevo, Vrsac, Veliki Beckerek, Becej, Apatin); the province of Vojvodina (the southern part of Habsburg Monarchy, later the Austro-Hungarian Empire and now in Serbia); and Central Europe. The research concentrates on discovering the role of beer production in the industrialisation and urbanisation of Vojvodina during the period of Dualism and contains descriptions of representative examples in an urban context, a spatial concept, technological processes, and construction and architectural design.
Different lager beer production sites have been analysed to define types of breweries according to the position of the basic functional units of the production process. The changes in the social system are discussed in relation to the determination of housing models and types of public buildings in industrial complexes. Focusing on the five oldest breweries in Vojvodina, this paper demonstrates not only the importance they had as generators of local development, but also that they were an echo of the technological and architectural codes of Central Europe.
KEYWORDS: Vojvodina, lager breweries, architecture, process

Evaporating Legacies: Industrial Heritage and Salt in Cheshire, UK

This paper examines the nature and legacies of the salt industry in Cheshire and recommends action to avoid losing an understanding of its fragmentary heritage. Brine and rock salt occurring in the natural environment has led to significant industrial development in Cheshire over the last two millennia. Technologies for salt exploitation have varied in scale and in location, and their ephemeral nature has often left few traces in the landscape. This industrial legacy contrasts with extractive industries such as coal which leave more tangible aftermaths – infrastructure and communities. Cheshire salt legacies include the unplanned consequences of subsidence, but also informal opportunities, for instance in nature conservation and recreation. Salt industry heritage in Cheshire is the central justification for the new Weaver Valley Regional Park which seeks to promote future social and economic well-being, but the salt legacies which delimit its n area deserve sufficient recognition and wider communication.
KEYWORDS: salt, mining, heritage, landscape, legacy, Cheshire


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