Abstracts of Volume XXX 2008

Issue No 1, Spring 2008

The Rolt Memorial Lecture 2007
Technological Change as a ‘Colonial’ Discourse: The Society of Friends in 19th-Century Ireland
COLIN RYNNE

This lecture re-examines the considerable contributions made by Irish Quakers to technological development in the UK during the 19th century, and argues that these were the result of a collaboration of social equals, and not the product of a ‘colonial discourse’. In the latter, it is assumed that as the essential relationship between Ireland and Britain was that of ‘colony’ and ‘metropolitan state’, in other words one of inequality. However, the discipline of industrial archaeology, as will be demonstrated here, allows us to present a very contrary view to the notion that Ireland’s net contribution to the technological pool of British industry could ever be considered to have been to have been the product of a ‘colonial’ and therefore subordinate relationship.

William Reynolds: Polymath A Biographical Strand Through the Industrial Revolution
BARRIE TRINDER

William Reynolds (1758-1803), the Shropshire ironmaster, died young, and left no substantial archive, but analysing the various aspects of his life illuminates many aspects of the Industrial Revolution, changes in ironworking technology, the application of steam-power, canal-building, the production of chemicals, glass and ceramics and the plantation of manufacturing communities. This study shows how an entrepreneur who knew many of the leading scientists of his time, and had his laboratory and scientific collections, acted as a link between science and manufacturing. The balance between documentary and archaeological evidence of Reynolds’s achievements is examined, and while the limitations of evidence from excavations and surveys are acknowledged, it is suggested that the impact of conservation schemes on popular understanding has been substantial, that while a biographical study can be enlightening, it must start from the premiss that an appreciation of science and technology is central to studies of the Industrial Revolution.

The Archaeology of Industrialisation and the Textile Industry:
the Example of Manchester and the South-western Pennine Uplands During the 18th Century (Part 1)
MICHAEL NEVELL

Between the early 18th century and the mid-19th century the north-west of England was turned from a relatively impoverished backwater to one of the major industrialisation zones in the world. This is thus a key region for understanding the archaeology of the early stages of industrialisation. The area around Manchester was at the heart of this process, which was driven in this region by the mechanisation of the textile industry. The archaeological remains of this industrial transition are not only very extensive but also comparatively early when considered against the classic period of the Industrial Revolution; the decades either side of 1800. This paper discusses this early evidence and the results of a wide-ranging regional survey looking at the archaeology of industrialisation within the textile industry and the role of local tenant farmers in promoting industry in and around Manchester during the 18th century. It highlights a number of key sources of evidence for this period and suggests some future directions for archaeological research into the early industrialisation of this important region. The second part is published in Industrial Archaeology Review XXX.2. (See below)

Old Mill, Congleton, Cheshire Brindley’s Grand Design?
MARK FLETCHER

Old Mill was one of a small group of early silk mills established in East Cheshire during the mid-18th century. It was notable for its size, and for the involvement of James Brindley in its construction. The mill was extended and a beam engine added c.1830, but it was partially demolished in 1939. In 2003 the remaining structures were demolished, which provided the opportunity for a programme of building recording and excavation. James Brindley’s role is examined in terms of the application of water power, and the context of the classical architecture and likely geological provenance of Old Mill is discussed

Issue No 2, Autumn 2008

Industrial Archaeology: Its Place Within the Academic Discipline, the Public Realm and the Heritage Industry
HILARY ORANGE

This paper presents a review of industrial archaeology literature and offers some initial thoughts on how this literature relates to my research on public perception and experience of Cornish mining landscapes. A brief summary of the development of industrial archaeology is given, which reflects on its amateur origins, its identity crisis and its slow integration into university archaeology departments. The reasons for the transformation of industrial sites into industrial heritage is then examined and temporal models of change presented which relate to hoth an acceleration of the past into the commodity heritage as well as an affective progression from disdain to acceptance. The public’s attitude to industrial archaeology is then discussed which raises complex questions over the nature of such sites including, the importance of time and aesthetics as well as the phenomenological nature of perception and experience.

The Archaeology of Industrialisation and the Textile Industry:
The Example of Manchester and the South-western Pennine Uplands During the 18th Century (Part 2)
MICHAEL NEVELL

Part 2 of the paper described above.

Workers’ Housing in Essex
TONY CROSBY, ADAM GARWOOD AND ADRIAN CORDER-BIRCH

This paper derives from a survey carried out to identify and quantify surviving sites and structures, and assess their historic and architectural significance. The information gathered has been used to enhance the County Historic Environment Record by providing detailed records of each site and structure, a comparative assessment of their significance and prioritised recommendations for their future management and statutory protection. When a site or structure becomes the subject of development proposals, an informed response can, therefore, be made. Through such management strategies and statutory protection, landscapes and structures of significance and hence the historic and architectural character of the County can be protected for present and future generations to understand and appreciate. The survey report considered the sites and structures on an individual basis; the aggregation of structures in a particular settlement for the purposes of considering Conservation Area status, and takes a county-wide view on the comparative significance of individual sites within a local, regional and national context. This article, however, will analyse the results of this survey in order to learn more about the reasons behind why the accommodation was built, where it was built and its design.

The Archaeology and Technology of Early-Modern Lime Burning in the Yorkshire Dales:
Developing a Clamp Kiln Model
DAVID JOHNSON

Compared with commercial or field lime kilns of the industrial period, very little detailed work has been undertaken to investigate post-medieval and early modern clamp kilns apart from a few notable site-specific studies. Clamp kiln terminology thus far has been unable to distinguish between clamp, sod and sow kilns. Recent field surveying and archaeological excavation across a wide area within the Yorkshire Dales, with associated documentary and archival research, has shed new light on clamp kiln technology and morphology. The results of this work have inforrmed the development of a provisional clamp kiln model which, it is argued, is appropriate to the Central Pennines.